When you have a healthy lung, they easily expand into your chest cavity while you inhale and take in the vital oxygen for the blood. As you exhale, the lungs deflate and carbon dioxide is released as a respiratory waste product. When you are climbing a flight of stairs or running to catch your bus, your breathing adapts to fulfil the extra demand on your lungs and heart. You might feel out of breath, but not short of breath. This is because if you have healthy lungs, you will have a breathing reserve that stores extra air volume to be used after a normal exhalation. But, when you have an airway or lung condition, you might have difficulty breathing or a feeling of tightness in your chest. Treatment of such conditions will depend on the root cause of the disease and its severity.
For people who have an aneurysm, the most recommended treatment option is conventional open surgery. In this, the doctor makes a long incision to expose the aneurysm. Depending on the location and type of your aneurysm, the doctor will make the incision through the breastbone, abdomen, or side of the chest. The weakened aorta is then repaired by replacing the aneurysm section. For this, a tube made from Dacron is used. The arteries below and above the aneurysm are clamped for preventing bleeding while the doctor sews a tube of fabric to the aneurysm’s end. In some cases, the patients who have thoracic aorta aneurysm, the patient might also have heart disease. For this, heart surgery is performed alongside the open aneurysm repair.
Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery is a procedure that helps clear the faeces out of your bowel. In this procedure, the bowel is emptied by using a fluid that is similar to an enema. This fluid is inserted into an opening in the abdomen’s side instead of into the rectum. There are several reasons why you might need this surgery including as a treatment for faecal incontinence and constipation. These problems might be caused by a wide range of conditions; some of these are congenital abnormalities affecting the anus and rectum while others are caused by neuropathies resulting from spinal abnormalities. ACE surgery is performed when other methods have been unsuccessful like bowel training, medications, dietary changes, etc.
Arthrocentesis (Joint Aspiration) is a procedure that helps your doctor find the reason for your painful and swollen joints. It also provides relief from these symptoms. In this, the healthcare provider removes the aspirate (fluid) from the affected joint using a thin needle. After this, they might inject some medications into your joint that temporarily ease inflammation and pain. When there is fluid buildup in your joints, it puts extra pressure on them which causes swelling and pain. You might even find it difficult to move or bend your joints. Your doctor will drain this fluid and send the sample for testing. This will reveal the cause of this fluid buildup. After the joint aspiration procedure, it will be easier for you to move.
Stimulant therapy has to be one of the most commonly used attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatments. With stimulants, doctors can help manage ADHD symptoms like impulse behaviour, hyperactivity, and short attention span. They might be either used alone or with behaviour therapy. As long as the patient takes the medication, they will see an improvement in their attention span and behaviour. However, benefits in school performance and social adjustment will take some time. These drugs are known to improve ADHD symptoms in 70% to 80% of children and 70% of adults shortly after starting the treatment. These improvements include reduced fidgeting, interrupting, and other symptoms as well as improved home relationships and task completion.
Augmentation Cystoplasty or Bladder Augmentation is a surgical procedure used for making your bladder larger. It is performed when someone has trouble urinating because of a health problem. These health problems can include
- Incontinence, inability to hold urine
- Stiffness or spasticity of the bladder
- Shrunken bladder because of treatments like radiation or diseases.
- Improper working of the muscles of the bladder. For instance, abnormal stretching of the bladder increases the pressure. Eventually, this pressure will be backed up to the kidneys causing infections and damage. Augmentation cystoplasty is performed to decrease this pressure in the bladder.
In most cases, this procedure is performed after a patient has already been self-catheterized for some time. Self-catheterization involves inserting a catheter through the urethra to drain urine.
Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) is intravesical immunotherapy that involves using a bacterium of Mycobacterium Bovis that is reduced to ensure that there is less harm to the body. Intravesical means a procedure in which medications are put inside the bladder. A catheter will be used for putting liquid drugs directly into the bladder. In this treatment, the bacteria are kept alive or viable so that it can work actively to kill the cancer cells in the body. This is a recommended treatment for bladder cancers as well as protection against them, especially if they come back after some time.
Biliary Drainage is a procedure that involves inserting a tube into your bile duct. It is usually performed when you have blocked bile ducts. Bile ducts are used for draining the bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a green-brown fluid produced by the liver that helps in digesting fats. If your bile ducts are blocked, it makes it impossible for the bile to leave the body resulting in the build-up. This leads to the yellow colouration of the skin known as jaundice accompanied by dark urine and itching. In the Biliary Drainage procedure, the doctor places a drainage tube into one of the bile ducts through the skin and allows bile out.
Biventricular Pacemaker is a CRT pacing device. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is used for treating the delay in the heart ventricular contractions that might occur in people with advanced heart failure. When someone has heart failure, it means that the rate of blood moving through their body and heart has slowed which has increased the pressure in the heart. A delay between the left and right ventricles contraction often occurs with failure. A Biventricular pacemaker is a battery-powered, electronic device surgically implanted under the patient’s skin. It has 2 or 3 wires or leads positioned in the heart for helping the heartbeat in a balanced way. The doctor will implant the leads through a vein in the right ventricle and atrium into the coronary sinus vein for pacing the left ventricle.
Bladder Tumor Biopsy and Resection are a part of the Transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TURBT). Since the procedure involves going through the urethra, there are no incisions involved. This surgery can help stop cancer from invading your muscle wall. TURBT procedure is done for diagnosing and treating early-stage bladder cancer. It is the first-line diagnostic and treatment procedure for bladder cancer. In most cases, when bladder cancer is first diagnosed, it is less likely to invade the muscular wall of the bladder. Almost everyone who is diagnosed with this condition will have to get a bladder tumour biopsy and resection done. In the biopsy, the doctor takes the sample and sends it to the lab for testing. They will also try removing the cancerous growth in the same procedure.
Bone grafting is a surgical procedure where a diseased or damaged bone is repaired using transplanted bone. Bone grafting can be performed to repair bones in any part of your body. A bone graft is also used to fill an area where a bone is absent, to provide structural stability. It is also used to heal bone around surgically implanted devices like plates, joint replacements, and screws. Your surgeon can take the bone from your body or from a donor, or it can be purely synthetic. Bone from hips, ribs, or legs is taken to perform bone grafting. You will be given general anaesthesia. Your surgeon will make an incision in the skin above the affected area. He/she will shape the donated bone to fit in the area. The graft will be held in place using cables, wires, screws, pins, or plates. Once the bone graft is secured in place, your surgeon will close the incision. Sometimes, a cast or a splint might be used to support the graft while it heals. The recovery can take a few weeks to more than a year depending on the size of the graft and other factors.
A bone-anchored auditory implant is a surgical procedure in which a hearing prosthetic device is surgically implanted to partially restore hearing for people with single-sided deafness, conductive hearing loss, or mixed hearing loss. This procedure can be performed in different ways. Usually, a tiny implant is placed behind the ear and a sound processor is connected to this implant. They both work together to send sound vibration to the hearing nerves and inner ear. For people who do not want a surgical procedure, or for children below 5 years of age, the sound processors will be held in place with the help of adhesive stickers or elastic bands. You need to go through tests by specialists to decide if you need an auditory implant. The evaluations performed include hearing tests, sensory device evaluation, computerized tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging, surgical consultation, and communication evaluation.
Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) is given during lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer. In this procedure, a single, high dose of radiation is directly delivered to the tumour or the tumour bed. This is done via X-rays, electron beams, or high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Your radiation team will decide how many doses of radiation to be used and at what angles the radiation beams must be projected. IORT has fewer side effects compared to external beam therapy. It is a preferred therapy because it is a shorter procedure and is given in a single dose instead of repeatedly over several weeks. IORT is preferred for patients over 50 years of age and are at the early stages of breast cancer. The IORT procedure takes about 30 minutes depending upon the IORT device.
A bunion is a bony bump that grows at the base or at the side of your big toe, where it unites with the foot bone called the first metatarsal. Bunions are visible at the part of the joint where the toe meets the foot and can be very painful. Bunion surgery is a treatment to correct bunions that involves repositioning the big toe in a way to relieve pain. Your surgeon may also realign the tendons or ligaments around your big toe. Your surgeon will set your toe in place by using either wires, small screws, or metal plates. There are different types of bunion surgery depending upon the techniques used, like, Exostectomy, Osteotomy, and Arthrodesis. Your surgeon will decide which method is suitable for you depending on your health, your activity levels, and other factors. The whole process continues for 45 minutes to 3 hours. You can return home the same day since it is an outpatient procedure. You might feel difficulty for two weeks after the surgery while performing daily activities. Bunion surgery helps in pain relief and aligns your big toe properly that can help you walk easily.
The dislocation of small crystals of calcium carbonate in the inner ear leads to Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) which causes dizziness and vertigo when you move your head. These crystals get trapped in the semicircular canal of the inner ear. Canalith repositioning procedure is done to relieve BPPV. During the procedure, you will be asked to move from a sitting to a reclining position. Your head should be turned to the affected side by 45 degrees. Your doctor will help you to extend your head slightly over the edge of the table at some angle. In this same position, you will be prompted to turn your head 90 degrees from the affected side. This procedure might be repeated three or more times. Your doctor will teach you how to perform the procedure on your own. You will be asked to repeat the procedure for several days until your symptoms go away. Usually, most people experience relief with this procedure, but if your symptoms return, your doctor might need to perform the Canalith repositioning again.
T-Cells are a type of immune system cells and play a crucial role in organizing the immune response and killing infected cells. CAR T-cell therapy is a treatment in which the T-cells of a patient’s body are modified in the laboratory in a way that they attack cancer cells. T-cells are extracted from the patient’s blood. Then, the T-cells produce receptors on their surfaces called Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs). These receptors bind to a certain protein in the cancer cells of the patients. CAR T-cells are produced in large numbers in the laboratory and given to the patient by infusion. These genetically engineered cells multiply in the patient’s body and recognize and kill cancer cells, with the guidance of the receptors. Research on CAR T-cells is still going on. This therapy has been successful in treating certain blood cancers and studies are going on to extend it for other types of cancer.
Atherosclerotic heart disease is the deterioration of the inner lining of the arteries. The walls of the arteries thicken and cholesterol and plaque deposits lead to a build-up on the coronary artery walls. This causes a blockage that leads to chest pain. When one or more arteries are completely blocked, it can lead to a heart attack. Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a narrow tube called a catheter is inserted through a plastic sheath. An X-ray machine guides the catheter through the blood vessel and helps the doctor to evaluate your heart’s functions. In Angioplasty, a tiny balloon is attached at the catheter top and inserted near the blocked artery. The balloon is then inflated which leads to the compression of the plaque against the artery wall. The diameter of the blood vessel widens and hence the blood flow to the heart increases. Mostly, angioplasty is carried out with stenting. It helps prevent the artery from closing up again. The stent is inserted into the artery using a balloon catheter planted over a wire to guide it. The stent expands when the balloon is inflated and acquires the size of the artery and hence keeps it open. The stent stays there permanently while the balloon is deflated and eliminated. The artery heals around the stent over several weeks hence the blockage is diminished.
An aneurysm is ballooning or a bulging or in the wall of a blood vessel. A carotid artery aneurysm can form blood clots that stop the flow of blood to your brain. Symptoms include stroke, hoarseness, facial swelling, or swallowing issues. Though rare, the bursting of carotid artery aneurysms is life-threatening. Surgical repair is the pillar of treatment of this condition. General anaesthesia is used for this procedure. The surgeon makes an incision in the patient’s neck to showcase the carotid artery aneurysm. The artery blood flow is temporarily stopped using clamps or with the help of a tiny tube by placing it in the carotid artery to provide blood to the brain. The aneurysm is then excised. With various different conduits, from the normal artery above the aneurysm to the normal artery below the aneurysm, a bypass is performed. The surgeon decides the type of material used in the bypass. It takes around 120 minutes to 180 minutes for this procedure. The patient is required to stay in the hospital for seven to ten days.
Carotid artery disease takes place when waxy, fatty deposits accumulate in one of the carotid arteries. This may block the flow of the blood to your brain and can lead to stroke. Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure to treat carotid artery disease. In case of a severe narrowing in your carotid artery, your doctor will recommend a carotid endarterectomy. You may or may not experience any symptoms. You will be kept under general anaesthesia for this procedure. Your surgeon will make an incision along your neck front portion. He/ She will open your carotid artery and remove the plaque, the fatty buildup, and hence your arteries will be unclogged. Your surgeon will then close the incision with the help of a patch graft or a patch made with a vein or stitches.
Cardiac ablation is a surgical procedure performed to correct arrhythmias of the heart. In the case of a normal heartbeat, the heart contracts or squeezes. Due to this, electrical signals are created. These signals must travel through proper channels. When there is a disruption in this channel, an abnormal heartbeat occurs. This is known as arrhythmia. In this procedure, small scars are created in the heart by cold energy or heat. This would restore a regular heartbeat by blocking the abnormal electrical signals. This procedure is typically done by inserting catheters in the arteries or veins. These are narrow, flexible tubes. Sometimes, during cardiac surgery, cardiac ablation may be done.
Caudal injections are types of steroid injections given into the epidural space in the lower back, for relief from pain and inflammation. Typically, the spinal nerves pass through the epidural area in the lower back and connect with the legs. Sometimes, these nerves may become inflamed due to conditions such as a herniated disk, sciatica, spinal canal stenosis, degenerative disk disease or failed back syndrome. This can cause nerve pain and inflammation. In this procedure, the patient has to lie down on the X-ray table. The surgeon applies an anaesthetic on the lower back so that the patient wouldn’t feel anything. Then, a dye will be injected into the epidural space through a needle. This will help the surgeon identify where exactly the medicine is supposed to go. Lastly, the surgeon will inject the steroid medication through a needle in this area.
The cervical artificial disk replacement surgery is performed to improve mobility as well as reduce pain in people who are suffering from cervical disk disease. Sometimes, it is also an option for those with cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy, with minimal disk degeneration. In the body, spinal disks are cushions or shock absorbers for the vertebrae that are positioned between the vertebrae or the bones of the spine. These disks are responsible for the spinal column’s motion and flexibility. The disk can be divided into two sections - the interior section, made of a soft substance and the exterior section, made of a thicker and fibrous substance. With old age, these disks start to deteriorate and small cracks or tears start forming in this outer section, leading to degenerative disk disease. This surgery can help preserve the spine’s motion, along with the replacement of the worn-out disk.
A cervical cerclage procedure is a surgery performed to avoid preterm delivery as well as miscarriages in the second trimester. In this procedure, the surgeon puts a stitch around the cervix to keep it closed. Candidates for this procedure generally include women who are at a higher risk of the cervix starting to open before the pregnancy reaches full term (cervical incompetence). It may be performed when the woman is 12 to 14 weeks pregnant. As the due date approaches, the stitch will be removed. Cervical cerclage is usually recommended in women whose cervix has weakened due to a history of miscarriage or pre-term delivery, or a previous cone biopsy or LEEP. In this procedure, to access the cervix, the doctor will insert a speculum in the vagina. This will widen the vaginal walls and they can easily observe the cervix. Finally, the doctor will wrap a stitch around the upper section of the cervix and tighten it. This will close the cervix.
A colectomy is a surgery wherein the surgeon removes some part or all of the large intestine or colon. This organ is a part of the digestive system and its function is to help the body digest the food we eat. Sometimes, some colon tissue may stop working correctly, due to certain conditions such as inflamed tissues caused by diverticulitis or inflammatory bowel disease, blockage, cancer, infection or other diseases. A colectomy may be recommended in people with such conditions. It is usually recommended when non-surgical treatment options like medication don’t provide any relief from the symptoms. It may also be performed in the case of bleeding in the colon. Conditions such as severe constipation, colon polyps, ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, Crohn’s disease and large bowel obstruction can be treated by a colectomy surgery.
Colostomy irrigation is a method of removing stool without having to wear a colostomy bag all of the time. To wash the colon with water, the stoma is used. Usually, colostomy irrigation is done every day or every other day at the same time, depending on the needs of patients. Colostomy irrigation may be required in patients who’ve undergone a colostomy, due to conditions such as cervical or vaginal cancer, anal cancer, diverticulitis, large intestinal obstruction, or faecal incontinence. If a patient has had a sigmoid or descending colostomy, the only option for them is colostomy irrigation. Patients would need certain supplies to perform the colostomy irrigation and their doctor can teach them how to do it.
Also known as brain-splitting or callosal sectioning, corpus callosotomy is a surgery performed to treat epilepsy, a condition wherein recurrent seizures occur in the child or adult. In this surgery, the patient is first placed under general anaesthesia. Then, the surgeon proceeds to remove a piece of the patient’s skull. After this, a section of the dura is peeled back and using surgical microscopes, the surgeon will insert specialized instruments. This is done to find the corpus callosum and remove it. Then, the dura is replaced and using staples or stitches, the skull bone that was earlier removed, is now secured back into its place. This surgery can benefit people who have recurrent atonic seizures even after taking anti-seizure medications regularly. It isn’t very helpful for those who have focal seizures.
Craniosacral therapy (CST) is performed to find relief from various symptoms such as pain and discomfort in the neck, headaches, or side effects of treatment for cancer or other conditions. It is a mild form of therapy wherein the membranes and fluid circulation in and around the central nervous system are examined with a gentle touch. By reducing central nervous system tension, a sense of well-being is fostered, by alleviation of pain and improvement in immunity and health. CST can help conditions such as neuralgia, stroke, fibromyalgia, fascial adhesions, speech impairment, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and migraine headaches. It can feel like a massage because the therapist applies gentle pressure to relieve stress and improve blood circulation and organ function.
Also known as cryotherapy, percutaneous cryoablation or cryosurgery, Cryoablation is a treatment wherein intense cold is applied to kill cancer cells. In this procedure, a cryoprobe is directly inserted into the malignant tumour through the skin. The cryoprobe is a thin needle that looks like a wand. To freeze the tissue, gas is inserted into the cryoprobe and the tissue is left to thaw. This process is performed several times as a part of cryoablation. This treatment option is recommended when surgery cannot be performed. Conditions such as lung cancer, eye cancer, liver cancer, bone cancer, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer can be treated with this procedure. It helps relieve symptoms caused by cancer such as pain.
In Cryotherapy, extreme cold is used to remove abnormal tissue. This technique is usually considered by doctors to treat skin conditions, such as warts or skin tags, and various cancers, including cervical, liver, or prostate cancer. Also known as cryoablation, targeted cryoablation therapy, percutaneous cryotherapy or cryosurgery, it is a minimally invasive treatment. Some of the substances that are used during this therapy include liquid nitrogen, liquid nitrous oxide, and argon oxide. During this treatment, when abnormal tissues are exposed to extreme cold, they die as they are unable to survive such harsh conditions. Most people recover quickly from Cryotherapy with little pain. Cryotherapy is usually performed without open surgery and is becoming increasingly popular.
A Cystolitholapaxy is a procedure recommended by your healthcare provider to cure bladder stones. Bladder stones are mineral deposits that develop inside the bladder. Unlike surgical treatment, your doctor can treat this with minimal invasion with the help of a cystoscope to remove them. During this procedure, the cystoscope (a tiny telescope) is inserted inside the bladder, where the large stones are broken down with the help of a laser and then removed. There are two different types of this procedure, including Percutaneous suprapubic cystolitholapaxy (used to treat bladder stones in children) and Transurethral cystolitholapaxy (used to treat bladder stones in adults). This is a fairly safe procedure with a shorter recovery time.
DBS or Deep Brain Stimulation is a procedure where your doctor implants electrodes in certain parts of the brain. The purpose of these electrodes is to combat any abnormal brain activity. With the help of these electrodes, any chemical imbalances can also be controlled. During this treatment, an electrode, which is a thin wire that's inserted through a small opening of your skull and put on a specific area. This procedure is used when medicines are no longer effective. It is also effective in patients to reduce seizures in complicated epilepsy cases. Some of the conditions treated with the help of this procedure include Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Essential tremor, Epilepsy, Dystonia and Parkinson's disease.
Deep Inspiration Breath Hold in Breast Cancer Treatment or DIBH is a treatment method where breast cancer patients get radiation therapy. One of the tricks physicians use to reduce the amount of radiation to the heart includes patients taking a deep breath and holding it in while receiving radiation. This is helpful because when one takes a deep breath, the lungs get filled up with air and the heart slightly moves away from the chest. It is utilised in cases wherein radiation therapy is necessary for the chest region to avoid radiation dose to the heart. This technique is used; When one has lymphoma in the chest region, Breast cancer in the left side and Tumours of the chest
Treatment for Vesicoureteral Reflux is conducted via injectable gel. VUR or Vesicoureteral Reflux is a condition where urine flows backwards inside the uterus and kidneys. VUR mostly affects young children ages two and under, infants, newborns and can also affect adults. However, this is rare. With the help of this bulge that the gel makes, a valve forms and it prevents urine from flowing backwards. This treatment is safe and can help rectify this issue. Here, a catheter is then inserted into the urethra along with a contrast dye that helps get clear X-ray images of the bladder. The complete procedure takes about 30 minutes. Some of the risks of this procedure include ureter blockage, infection, bleeding, bladder damage, swelling and bruising.
In Distal Splenorenal Shunt, the vein from the spleen is attached to the left kidney vein after detaching it from the spleen. This surgery helps reduces the pressure in the varices and controls the bleeding associated with portal hypertension. The surgery is done to relieve portal vein extra pressure. The portal vein carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. It is a safe and effective treatment for controlling recurrent variceal haemorrhage in patients with acceptable operative risk and good liver function. Your doctor may prescribe various tests before the procedure including endoscopy, angiogram, blood tests and physical examination. You will be prescribed various tests before the procedure, including endoscopy, angiogram, blood tests and a physical examination. The time taken to perform the procedure is around three to four hours.
A Donor Lymphocyte Infusion, which is also known as DLI, is an infusion process from the T cells from the donor. This treatment is administered to elicit a response from the immune system and is used for patients suffering from blood cancer. When a patient opts for DLI, the donor T-cells are infused after the patient undergoes a stem cell transplant. However, post-procedure, Chemotherapy may be required to destroy any cancerous cells. To collect the DLI, it must be done during the stem cell collection. It can also be frozen and used later, as and when required. However, if there aren't enough cells present, the stem cell process needs to be repeated.
Electrical Cardioversion is an advanced procedure that has reduced the need for atrial fibrillation (Afib or AF) for several patients. Due to this, the Afib symptoms go away for a long time. If you are looking for electrical cardioversion, you must look for an Electrophysiologic, who is a specially trained Cardiologist. After they evaluate your physical condition, your doctor will confirm if you are a good candidate for the procedure. If you opt for Electrical Cardioversion, your doctor will give you all the right instructions to help you prepare better for the procedure. Electrical Cardioversion is a process where a device called a defibrillator is used to give an electric shock to the heart to restore normal rhythm. It is usually used to treat atrial fibrillation.
Electroconvulsive therapy or ECT is a procedure that's administered to patients suffering from bipolar disorder or severe clinical depression. However, this treatment is only recommended when all other methods have failed. During this procedure, the patient is put under general anaesthesia and the brain undergoes short electric stimulation. Muscle relaxants are also given before placing the electrodes in the scalp. It is a minor procedure and the patient wakes up within 15 minutes. ECT is said to be an extremely useful treatment and offers great relief. Before the procedure, the patient will undergo a complete medical evaluation, which includes both physical and psychiatric. It is not a one-time treatment, but five to 10 sessions, or even more may be advised by the doctor according to the patient's condition.
The process of freezing and storing embryos is known as Embryo cryopreservation. It is also known as embryo freezing and embryo banking. The process helps increase the chances of pregnancy and is also beneficial in saving embryos for women with cancer who want to conceive after chemotherapy. The process includes IVF where mature eggs are collected from ovaries and combined with sperm to form embryos. The embryos are frozen and can later be put inside a woman’s uterus. During IVF, certain medications are given to both the man and the woman, which increases the release of eggs and sperm. To be sure, the IVF doctor will create several embryos, which even after being inserted inside the uterus, remains. These embryos are then preserved via embryo cryopreservation.
Endoleaks occur when blood leaks back into an aneurysm sac in patients who have EVAR. There are two types of endoleak: Type I (occurs around the top or bottom of the stent-graft) and Type II (occurs when blood flows into the aneurysm sac from branches of the aorta). To treat type II endoleaks, there are several options. However, the most common procedure is translumbar embolization. During the procedure, the aneurysm sac is pierced with a needle and any clot producing materials, such as coils or glues are injected. Treatment for Endoleak I should be done immediately. This may include using special balloon stents. Extending the stented area of the aorta by installing stents beyond the leaking end of the graft is carried while laying special cuffs at the end of the graft and using special glue-like material to close off the graft. Type II Endoleak sometimes stops without having to undergo any treatment. This happens if the branches of the blood vessels that are leaking clots stop sending blood to the aneurysm.
Endoscopic Mucosal Resection is a treatment procedure that's administered to extract any precancerous elements present in the body. It also helps with early-stage cancer and enables the doctors to remove any abnormal tissues from the digestive tract. During the procedure, you will be put under general anaesthesia or local anaesthesia. An endoscope is then inserted via the throat. Since you will be sedated during the entire procedure, you will not experience any discomfort. During the procedure, your blood pressure and oxygen levels will be monitored. You might experience some mild side effects after the procedure, including sore throat, gas or cramps.
Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) for Esophageal and Gastric Cancer is a minimally invasive procedure that helps eliminate cancer that's present in the gastrointestinal tract. This is a more advanced method where the organ that's attached to the cancer isn't removed, and only the cancer is removed. It helps treat Barrett's oesophagus, determining the level of the cancer, to eliminate the tumours present in the stomach, colon, and oesophagus and early-stage cancers. During the procedure, an endoscope is used to remove the anomaly present by separating it from the muscle wall and carefully extracting it. This procedure can also be conducted for sample tissue for a biopsy.
Endovascular Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Closure is a procedure that's conducted to close a small hole that's present between the upper chambers of the heart. During the procedure, a device is inserted into the heart to close the hole using a catheter. Generally, PFOs don't cause a lot of symptoms and treatment is not compulsory. However, if the patient is experiencing complications, only then will the doctor suggest this treatment. PFO is particularly worrying since it raises the risk for stroke. The entire process takes about 2 hours and is performed while you are under anaesthesia. It is a completely safe and painless procedure.
Endovascular Stent Graft is a procedure conducted to treat an abdominal aortic aneurysm. It helps correct the bulge that gets formed in the artery’s wall that’s located below the heart. Before the procedure, a few tests may also be conducted, such as blood tests, ECG, CT scan, and more to check if you are the right candidate for the procedure. During the procedure, you are given general anaesthesia to ensure you don't experience any pain. A small incision is made near the groin where the artery is present. Then, a catheter is inserted. This tube is then transported to the aneurysm along with a stent graft to prevent the aneurysm from bursting. This is a safe and effective procedure, and only rarely will a patient experience any side effects.
Enhanced External Counterpulsation or EECP is a non-invasive procedure and an alternative to heart bypass surgery. This procedure is for patients who have chronic stable angina, someone who isn’t getting adequate relief from angina even after taking medicines, and for patients who don’t qualify for invasive procedures. Before the procedure, you have to undergo a stress test. During the procedure, the blood vessels are compressed to ensure there is an increase in the blood flow to the heart. This method also enables blood vessels to open small branches. This is an effective and safe procedure that helps improve the quality of life. Although the side effects are very rare, the patient may experience fatigue, headaches, muscle aches, and skin irritation. This is an outpatient procedure and is conducted with the help of inflatable cuffs.
An esophagectomy is a procedure where a small portion of the oesophagus is removed. This treatment is usually recommended for oesophagal cancer. During an esophagectomy, a part of the oesophagus is removed depending on the location of the cancer. Then, the remaining portion is reconnected to the stomach. Here, lymph nodes may also be removed and later examined for the presence of cancer. If it is detected in the nodes, it can mean that cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Once the procedure is done, the patient will remain in the ICU for anywhere between 24-48 hours in order to recover.
Blepharoplasty is a surgery that's performed to correct droopy eyelids. This procedure also helps provide a more youthful appearance. During the surgery, the folds of the eyelids are cut and the extra skin is removed and then the eyelid is stitched back. For some time, the patient might experience blurred vision, watering eyes, double vision, light sensitivity, pain and discomfort. Your doctor will also provide you with instructions to help you take care of yourself. Most patients resume to a normal routine after 7 to 8 days following the procedure. It is important to have realistic expectations before undergoing this procedure.
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for Spinal Cord Injury is a procedure that enables patients to move easily and function without any assistance. During this procedure, tiny electric impulses help stimulate certain nerves and muscles to induce the desired function. With the help of this procedure, the pain signals get blocked and this helps restore important functions, such as the bladder and bowel. The electrodes used here are placed on the skin with the help of sticky pads and then the nerves are targeted. This is an outpatient surgery with minimal recovery time. This is a safe procedure and involves minimum risks.
Heart Surgery for Atrial Fibrillation is a process where abnormal or irregular heart rhythms are corrected. Surgery is not mandatory in all cases as some can only be an annoyance, but can also be dangerous, which can cause stroke or even death. This is a minimally invasive procedure conducted for patients who are suffering from isolated atrial fibrillation. With the help of the MAZE procedure, long-term success becomes possible. Here, an endoscope is used, along with other specialized instruments. The recovery rate is high and this is a safe procedure with rare side effects. After the surgery, you may be prescribed a few medications to help you recover faster.
When a part of the kidney stops working correctly, a heminephrectomy is performed. In this surgery, the affected part of the kidney is removed. It is generally performed in people with a condition called duplex kidney, wherein there are two ureters in either one or both the kidneys. Heminephrectomy may be performed either laparoscopically or open surgery. The surgeon will locate the parts of the kidney that are not working. They will also locate the vessels that supply blood to this part and disconnect them. Then, the surgeon will proceed to disconnect the ureter associated with that kidney, from the remaining urinary system. The damaged kidney part is also removed. After this, the surgeon will close the incisions with sutures.
Hip revision is a surgical procedure done to repair a prosthetic hip joint that has been damaged due to the usual wear and tear of the joint over time, an infection, or some form of arthritis. This surgery aids in the correction of the condition, allowing the hip to function normally once more. Hip revision surgery is generally required when the artificial hip joint becomes loose or damaged over time and leads to unusual movement and pain. With this surgery, the artificial hip joint is repaired so that it can function properly. The surgeon will remove the damaged hip joint prosthesis and replace it with another. In some cases, hip revision surgery may have to be performed more than once, because of its severity. If the artificial joint is infected, the surgeon will first remove it and then antibiotics will be administered to the joint to treat the infection. The surgery to put in the new prosthetic is performed once the infection in the hip joint has been treated.
The surgery that is performed to treat urine flow restriction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is called Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). The patient is put under anaesthesia and put on his back with his legs lifted. After this, the surgeon will insert a resectoscope into the prostate gland via the urethra, to view inside. Then, they will insert a laser into this device. The prostate tissue that has become enlarged will be enucleated from the outer shell, through the laser. The blood vessels may also be sealed. This excised tissue ends up in the bladder. The surgeon will then remove the laser from the device. In its place, a morcellator will be inserted to suck out the tissue remaining in the bladder. Ultimately, a urinary catheter will be placed, once the resectoscope is removed.
Holmium laser lithotripsy is a surgery wherein stones such as kidney, bladder, urethra or ureter stones in the urinary tract, are broken down using lasers. This procedure is done as an alternative to another procedure called extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy since its success rate is higher as compared to the latter procedure. The chances of a complication called steinstrasse occurring are also reduced with holmium laser lithotripsy. It is especially successful in patients with multiple stones. In this procedure, the surgeon will place a camera (scope) in the urinary tract and through the urethra, they will insert a laser fiber. With this, the stones will be broken up and removed using other small instruments. No incisions are made in this procedure.
Surgery for infective endocarditis is done to treat the condition. When germs such as bacteria enter into the bloodstream and start attacking the heart valve linings, this infection occurs. Bacteria can enter the bloodstream while brushing teeth, passing stools or eating food. Normally, our heart valves don’t get infected but if they are diseased, the bacteria might attach to the defects on the surface. It can lead to the valve tissue getting scarred, or holes or growths may form on the valve. This, in turn, leads to leakage from the valve. If left untreated, IE can be fatal. IE surgery is required if the valve leakage is severe, or the infection doesn’t subside despite taking antibiotics. Surgery can include debridement and valve reconstruction. In the debridement procedure, the surgeon will remove the tissue that has become infected. It is enough to remove the infected tissue if the infection has impacted only the cusps of the valve. Valve reconstruction surgery is done either to repair or replace the affected valve.
Inguinal lymph node dissection is a surgical procedure wherein the groin’s lymph nodes are removed. This procedure is also known as lymphadenectomy or groin dissection. The lymph nodes are tiny structures responsible for creating cells that fight diseases as well as serving as lymph vessels filters. The lymph vessels are tubes that collect as well as distribute the lymph fluid in the body. The purpose of inguinal lymph node dissection is the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of cancer in the inguinal lymph nodes. The patient is put under anaesthesia first. Then, the surgeon makes an incision in the groin. They remove the lymph nodes that are suspected to be cancerous. The removed lymph nodes may either be only superficial or both deep as well as superficial nodes, depending on the patient’s condition. After the removal, the incision is covered using a skip flap. To drain the excess fluid from the wound, tubes are also placed in. Lastly, the surgeon closes the incision with staples or stitches.
Back disorders such as a displaced vertebra, sciatica or herniated discs can cause pain and discomfort in the legs, arms, lower back or neck. This can be relieved with an interlaminar injection. The doctor will first give the patient an IV (intravenous) medication. This will help them relax. The patient will then be placed on the x-ray table, face down (on their stomach). A local anaesthetic will be used to numb an area on the patient’s back. Using a guided x-ray, a thin needle will be inserted into the patient’s back. To ensure that the medication goes to the right spot, the doctor will inject a dye. Lastly, a mixture of steroids as well as an anaesthetic will be injected. This will ensure short-term as well as long-term relief from pain and inflammation. The steroid begins working in 2 to 3 days after the procedure.
Also known as a sequential compression device or compression sleeve, intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices are inflatable sleeves that patients recovering in the hospital need to wear sometimes. Patients, who are not very active when they are recovering after a surgery or an illness, have to wear them on their lower legs. This device is usually used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in such patients, as this blood clot is harmful and can become fatal. Hence, the IPC devices help prevent DVT as well as other blood clots. The sleeves inflate and deflate every 20 to 60 seconds. Patients may feel a sensation similar to that of a leg massage. This promotes blood circulation in the body, in turn, preventing the formation of blood clots. When the sleeve compresses, the blood will move to the heart from other parts of the body. When it will relax, the blood, rich with oxygen, will return to the arteries in your legs.
An aneurysm in the arteries that feed the intestines, kidneys or other intra-abdominal organs is called a visceral artery aneurysm. In this condition, a part of the wall of an artery becomes weak and starts to balloon or bulge. The aneurysm keeps expanding, leading to the wall of the artery becoming thinner and the chances of it bursting also increase. If blood clots have formed due to a visceral artery aneurysm, and due to this, blood flow is being blocked or if a nearby vein or nerve is being compressed, the intestinal PAD visceral artery aneurysm surgery may be required. In this procedure, the doctor will first make a tiny hole in the affected artery. Then, they will place a graft. It may be a synthetic tube or a portion from one of your own veins. This graft will then be connected so that blood flow can be resumed via another artery that is not diseased.
In an endarterectomy surgery, a plaque is removed from a blood artery. If there is a plaque build-up in the arteries, it can lead to them becoming too narrow or blocked. Due to this, the intestinal, as well as bowel tissues, don’t receive enough blood. An endarterectomy is performed to treat this condition. The patient is first placed under general anaesthesia. Then, the surgeon makes a cut in the abdomen. The affected artery is then freed from the nearby tissue. The surgeon will use special clamps to pause the blood flow in this artery, for some time. The surgeon might also have to pause the aorta’s blood flow, based on the blockage’s location. After this, the surgeon will make a long incision in the area of the artery where the plaque build-up is located. They will use an endarterectomy spatula to remove it. If some parts of the vessel have also become diseased, then they also may have to be removed. Ultimately, the surgeon will close the vessel using stitches or a patch made of synthetic material or the vein of the patient.
The J-pouch surgery is a procedure performed to construct a new method of retaining and passing intestinal contents. It is generally performed after a patient has undergone a proctocolectomy, wherein the rectum and the large intestine are removed. This surgery is performed when a person has certain diseases such as chronic ulcerative colitis, familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary forms of colorectal cancer, or multifocal rectal or colon cancer. After a proctocolectomy, the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure is performed, in which, a pouch is formed from the lowest part of the small intestine called the ileum. This pouch is where solid wastes are stored. To pass stool through the anus, which is the usual way of our body, this pouch is connected to the anal canal. The J-pouch is the most commonly used pouch for IPAA, because of the ease of construction and a short length. The surgeon will make two 6-inch loops of the small intestine to make a J-pouch and connect it to the anal canal to allow stool to pass.
In a kidney transplant procedure, a healthy kidney is taken from a donor (living or dead) and placed into a recipient, whose kidneys have stopped functioning properly. The main responsibility of the kidneys is to produce urine to filter and remove toxins and waste from the blood. If it stops functioning properly, the waste and toxins start to collect in the body. This can lead to high blood pressure, ultimately leading to kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease. A kidney transplant is necessary in this case. In this surgery, the patient is put to sleep with general anaesthesia. The surgeon makes a cut in the lower portion of your abdomen on one side. The new kidney is placed in your body through this incision. The patient’s kidneys are left in place unless complications such as kidney stones, infections, high blood pressure or pain are being caused by them. After placing the new kidney, the surgeon attaches the new kidney’s blood vessels to the blood vessels in the lower portion of the patient’s abdomen, right above their legs. The ureter of this new kidney will be connected to the patient’s bladder.
When a person has kidney failure, they might have to undergo a kidney transplant procedure. In this surgery, a new kidney from a donor is placed into the affected person’s body. The donor kidney can either be from a non-living or a living donor. It will perform all the normal functions of a kidney that a failing kidney isn’t able to. In a kidney transplant procedure, the new kidney will be surgically implanted on either the lower left or right side of the patient’s abdomen. After being placed, this kidney will be connected to the surrounding arteries. The purpose of placing the new kidney in such a position is so that it can easily be linked with the bladder as well as the blood vessels. The ureter of the new kidney is also connected to the patient’s bladder. This allows urine to exit the patient’s body. Unless the patient has reflux, hypertension or repeated infection, their original kidneys are not removed.
The surgical procedure wherein the lamina is removed to create space in the spinal canal to pressure on the nerves or spinal cord. Pressure on the nerves or spinal cord usually builds up due to bone spurs or overgrowths in the spinal canal. These bone spurs take up space in the spinal canal and put pressure on the nerves and the spinal cord, resulting in numbness, pain or weakness. This is a common occurrence among people with spinal arthritis. This surgery is recommended when non-surgical treatments including injections, medication or physical therapy fail to provide relief. In this surgery, the patient is placed under general anaesthesia. Then, the surgeon makes a cut in the patient’s back, over the vertebrae that are affected. Through this incision, the surgeon will move aside the muscles from the spine. They will remove the affected lamina using specialised small instruments. If it is performed in a minimally invasive way, the incision would be smaller.
Also known as gastric band surgery, lap-band surgery involves placing a gastric band around the upper portion of the stomach, to create a small pouch. First, the patient is put under general anaesthesia. Then, the surgeon makes 3 to 5 1-inch incisions and inserts a laparoscope (thin tube with a camera attached on one end) through one of these incisions. The video from the camera is projected onto a screen or a monitor which the surgeon can look at. Through the other incisions, the surgeon inserts the specialised surgical instruments and also places the band. It is placed around the upper portion of the stomach. The surgeon will set it into position using sutures. Then, the port will be placed and sutured into the abdomen’s wall. This surgery is usually recommended for people who are obese or overweight and have tried conventional methods to lose weight but have not been successful.
An LVAD (left ventricular assist device) is a mechanical pump that helps the bottom left chamber of the heart pump blood to the aorta as well as other body parts. It is placed in individuals with heart failure. There are different types of LVADs available. The doctor would recommend one based on the patient’s medical condition and needs. Open surgery is performed to implant the LVAD. There are 4 main parts of the LVAD: the pump, driveline, control system and the power supply. The pump is placed in the heart’s apex in the chest. It will receive blood from here, which will get delivered to the aorta and then the rest of the body. The driveline, as well as the control system, are connected to the pump. The driveline runs from the device to the controller on the outside of your body, passing through the skin on your abdomen. The controller controls the pump and displays alarms or messages to aid in system operation. The LVAD is kept running by a power supply that may either be a wire that plugs into an electrical outlet or rechargeable batteries.
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is performed for removing abnormal cells from the cervix. It is usually recommended if a woman’s Pap test result is abnormal or if the doctor observes changes in her cervix during a routine pelvic examination. The abnormal cells may be polyps or precancerous, which may become cancerous if not treated. To determine what the cells are, LEEP is performed. This procedure may also be performed for the diagnosis and treatment of genital warts. In this procedure, a speculum will be inserted into the patient’s vagina and spread the vaginal canal walls. The doctor will observe the cervix and clean it using a vinegar solution. If there is any abnormal tissue present, it will turn white. Then, the doctor will numb the cervix by injecting a local anaesthetic. Through the speculum, the doctor will insert a wire loop to scrape off the abnormal tissues. If there’s any bleeding after LEEP, the doctor may apply some medication.
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is a surgery performed for removing the lung tissue that has become damaged and emphysematous. It is generally recommended for patients with conditions such as disabling dyspnea, severe emphysema, and air trapping. Emphysema is usually caused by smoking cigarettes and due to this condition, the lungs become damaged and it becomes difficult to breathe. With this procedure, the ability to breathe as well as the lung capacity of patients improves. LVRS can be performed in two ways - sternotomy and thoracoscopy. In the median sternotomy procedure, the surgeon will open the chest by cutting through the breastbone. The bilateral approach is taken up in this procedure, wherein both lungs are reduced simultaneously. As compared to this, a thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure. In this, the doctor will make around 3 to 5 between the ribs on both sides of the chest. Through one of the incisions, the surgeon will insert a device called a videoscope. This way, they’ll be able to see the lungs on a screen. Through the other incisions, a stapler, as well as a grasper, will be inserted and the diseased parts of the lung will be removed.
If a patient has undergone a total proctocolectomy surgery, wherein both the rectum and the large intestine are removed, they’ll also have to undergo another procedure called IPAA (ileal pouch-anal anastomosis). In this surgery, a small pouch is constructed from the smallest part of the small intestine, called the ileum, and connected to the anus so that stools can be exited from the body. Sometimes, if this pouch becomes inflamed or irritated, it can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating or cramping. This pouch dysfunction can be treated by taking antibiotics for 2 weeks. If it is chronic pouchitis, the person may need to follow a low-carb and high-protein diet, along with antibiotics, to find relief from some of its symptoms.
The surgery to repair or remove a torn meniscus is called meniscus surgery. It is most commonly performed in sportspersons and athletes because sudden movements such as turning, twisting or colliding with someone are common while playing a sport. A meniscus tear may also occur in older people because as we age, the menisci start to become weak and their chances of getting torn increase. If the knee becomes unstable due to the injured meniscus, surgery may be considered. Usually, meniscus surgery is performed as knee arthroscopy. The patient is given anaesthesia first. The skin on the knee area is clean and the surgeon proceeds to make multiple small incisions in your knee. These incisions are also known as portals. After this, the knee joint is filled up with sterile fluid. The doctor inserts an arthroscope through one of the incisions. This device has a camera attached to one end, from which the video will be projected onto a screen and viewed by the doctor. They will observe the tear and decide whether to go ahead with a meniscus repair or a partial meniscectomy.
Percutaneous interventions for mitral valve disease are less invasive treatment options for patients with mitral valve disease. Mitral valve disease can be of two types - mitral stenosis (MS) and mitral regurgitation (MR). In MS, the mitral valve leaflets don’t open properly because of scarring. Due to this, blood starts backing up in the lungs. In MR, the blood goes back towards the lungs from the heart, because the mitral valve leaflets aren’t able to form a seal to stop the blood, by coming together. Both these conditions can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, swelling in the feet, legs or abdomen and fatigue. If a person with degenerative MR cannot undergo heart surgery, due to high risk, percutaneous intervention may be recommended. It is also a better option for some patients with functional MR in some cases.
The MR-guided focused ultrasound is a combination of two technologies - magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. This method can be used to treat essential tremor and tremor-dominated Parkinson’s disease. The thalamus is a relay point for sensory and motor signals in the brain. In the case of Parkinson’s disease or essential tremor, the thalamic circuitry becomes aberrant, resulting in tremors. In this method, over 1000 ultrasonic beams are concentrated on a specific part of the thalamus in the brain, guided by MR imaging. These beams will boost the temperature of the tissue in the target area. Due to the heat from the ultrasound, a small lesion or burn is generated on the target location in the thalamus. The aberrant activity is interrupted by the little lesion or burn, which reduces the tremors related to these disorders. The surrounding tissue is left unharmed in this procedure.
The surgery wherein the ureter, renal pelvis, bladder cuff and kidney are removed in patients with transitional cell cancer, is called nephroureterectomy. This surgery is performed to increase the chances of survival in such patients. In this procedure, the patient is first put under general anaesthesia. It may be done conventionally or laparoscopically. In a laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, the surgeon makes a few tiny incisions and inserts an endoscope. They also insert other specialised instruments that are used to remove all the affected organs. Before removing the kidney as well as other organs, the surgeon will isolate them and separate them from the structures responsible for holding them together.
The surgical procedure wherein the ovaries are removed is called oophorectomy. It may be performed due to many conditions such as cysts, cancer, endometriosis, ovary torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease or as a preventative measure. Depending on the patient’s condition, oophorectomy can be performed in different ways including laparoscopic surgery, vaginal surgery or laparotomy. In a laparoscopic oophorectomy, the surgeon makes small incisions and inserts a laparoscope through one of the incisions to view inside. Using other small instruments, they will remove the ovaries. If a longer incision in the abdomen is required, the surgeon will perform a laparotomy. The doctor would recommend either a unilateral oophorectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy.
An orchiectomy is a surgical procedure wherein one or both the testicles are removed. It is usually performed for the treatment or prevention of prostate cancer from spreading. This surgery is recommended if a male has prostate or breast cancer and the cancer cells haven’t spread farther than the testicles or the prostate gland. In this surgery, the penis is first lifted and taped to the abdomen by the surgeon. Then, an incision is made either on the lower abdomen on the area above the pubic bone or the scrotum. Then, they cut out one or both the testicles from the vessels and tissues around them and remove them through this incision.
Also known as orchidopexy, orchiopexy is a surgical procedure wherein an undescended testicle is moved into the scrotum and permanently fixed there. This surgery is performed to correct two conditions – testicular torsion and undescended testicle. Usually, this surgery is performed in childhood itself, to prevent complications in the future, such as testicular cancer or infertility. First, the patient is given general anaesthesia, so they would be asleep during the surgery and won’t feel anything. Then, an incision is made in the groin, by the surgeon. They locate the testicle that needs to be repaired, examine it and then place it into the scrotum.
A surgical bypass for peripheral artery disease is a procedure wherein the blood flow near a blocked artery is rerouted by making a new channel with a graft. This surgery may be required if the arteries become excessively constricted or obstructed due to a buildup of plaque inside the arterial walls. In this procedure, the patient will be put under general anaesthesia first. Then, the surgeon will make an opening in the affected artery, below the blocked part, to bypass it. Then, they will place a graft that is either synthetic or made from the patient’s own veins. This graft will be connected below and above the blockage to reroute blood flow.
An atherosclerosis endarterectomy is an open surgical procedure wherein a plaque is removed from a blood vessel. It is usually performed when the blood vessels or arteries are blocked due to a build-up of plaque in the arterial walls. In this procedure, the surgeon makes a cut where the blockage is and inserts a tube (shunt) below and above the blockage. This way, blood flow is rerouted around the blockage. After this, the surgeon will remove the plaque with an endarterectomy spatula, by making an incision along the area of the artery where the plaque is located. Lastly, the vessels are stitched closed and the shunt is removed.
A paravalvular leak is a leak that occurs when a gap occurs between the replacement valve and the natural valve of a person. This leak occurs in a limited number of people who have undergone valve replacement surgery. It can be diagnosed when a person who has undergone a valve replacement surgery is experiencing symptoms of heart failure, including sudden weight gain, shortness of breath and swelling in the feet and legs. To diagnose a paravalvular leak, the doctor would perform echocardiography (echo). Traditionally, this leak used to be repaired by performing a repeat heart surgery. Today, catheter-based, nonsurgical techniques are used for the treatment of these leaks.
A percutaneous endoscopic gastrectomy (PEG) is a feeding tube placement operation. This is done to allow a patient to receive nutrition straight to the stomach. This method of feeding is called enteral nutrition or enteral feeding. A PEG tube is ideal for those who are suffering from dysphagia, due to conditions such as a stroke, brain injury, chronic appetite loss or head and neck cancer. In this procedure, the surgeon will make an incision in the patient’s abdomen. Using an endoscope, the surgeon will place the PEG tube through the incision. Then, they will connect the tube to the patient’s stomach.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a surgical procedure performed to remove kidney stones. It is usually performed when there are large kidney stones, not able to pass on their own or when other procedures such as ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy aren’t possible or unsuccessful. First, the surgeon will access the patient’s kidney through X-ray, CT or ultrasound. After this, the surgeon will insert a sheath and using a special instrument, they will break down the stones. They will remove the fragments once they are tiny enough. The drainage tubes may be left in the kidney after the surgery is complete. These fragments may be sent for analysis or checking for infection.
Also known as pericardial stripping, pericardiectomy is a surgery wherein a part or whole of the pericardium, which is the membrane sac with two walls, surrounding the heart, is removed. Usually, this surgery is performed if a person has constrictive pericarditis. This condition develops when the pericardium calcifies and becomes rigid. Due to this, the heart isn’t able to stretch the way it normally would, while beating. This leads to the heart chambers not getting enough blood and it starts to accumulate behind the heart. Due to this, the heart expands and the person experiences heart failure symptoms. Pericardiectomy can be performed by median sternotomy procedure, wherein the surgeon makes an incision through the sternum.
Perineal urethrostomy is a surgical technique performed in men to make a permanent hole into the urethra, the tube through which urine exits from the body, by making an incision in the perineum, the skin between the anus and scrotum. Sometimes, the urethra can get scarred due to an injury, previous surgery or an infection which can cause it to become narrow and urine flow can get blocked partially or completely. In this case, a perineal urethrostomy is recommended. It may also be considered if other surgeries have been performed to repair this condition but they haven’t been successful. It may also be performed in case of penectomy, urethrectomy, squamous cell carcinoma or hypospadias.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) can be diagnosed by tests such as a physical exam, ultrasound, ankle-brachial index, blood tests and angiography. PAD treatments include taking medication for preventing blood clots, high blood pressure, lowering cholesterol and relieving symptoms. Surgical procedures for PAD treatment include angioplasty, wherein a surgeon threads a catheter into the artery and the balloon at the end of the catheter inflates. Due to this, the plaque gets flattened into the arterial wall and the blood flow is restored as the artery opens up. Sometimes a bypass surgery or thrombolytic therapy may also be performed. Lifestyle changes and regular exercise can greatly relieve symptoms of PAD.
When the eyes aren’t able to bend light correctly, vision is affected. This is known as a refractive problem. To correct refractive problems, a surgery called photorefractive keratectomy is performed. It is generally performed when a person is diagnosed with hyperopia, myopia or astigmatism. In this surgery, the eye is first numbed and a holder is placed in the eye to stop blinking. Then, the surgeon removes the outer layer of the cornea called epithelium using a tool. After this, using a laser, the surgeon will reshape the cornea and place a clear contact lens. The patient will be given steroid, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory eye drops to put in the eye.
Pouch procedure is a surgery performed to make a new way of storing and passing intestinal contents after a person has undergone a proctocolectomy. In this procedure, the surgeon constructs a J-pouch from two loops of the small intestine. This pouch is connected to the anal canal’s upper portion so that stool can be eliminated. Once the pouch heals, the ileostomy will be closed and both ends of the bowel will be reattached. Usually, most people can resume their work and other daily activities once the pouch has healed. The patient will have increased bowel movements for up to a year after the surgery. This will slowly reduce as the pouch will heal and be able to hold more fluid.
Prostatic urethral lift is a procedure performed to relieve the symptoms of an enlarged prostate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, such as difficulty urinating, feeling a sudden need to urinate, frequent urination and slow urine stream. BPH is a condition wherein there is a noncancerous growth in the prostate as they age. In the PUL procedure, a urologist will take an instrument and insert it into the urethra. Once the device reaches the side wall of the prostate, it will eject two to six implants to pull the prostate and urethra. This will open the channel because the urethra will become wider. Symptoms of BPH are relieved and it becomes easier to urinate.
Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is a surgery performed to remove scar tissues and blood clots from arteries in the lung. This surgery can also treat CTEPH. In the surgery, the patient is put under anaesthesia. The surgeon makes an incision in the breast bone to reach the lungs and heart. The patient is then put on a bypass, which will act as their lungs and heart and also cool their body to 18 degrees Celsius. Then, the surgeon will remove the blood clots from the arteries using special tools. After this, they will be rewarmed and taken off bypass. The incision in the chest will be closed but the drains will be kept in place.
One of the treatment options for a condition called atrial fibrillation is pulmonary vein ablation. In atrial fibrillation, the heart rhythm becomes abnormal, originating from the atria. To restore a normal heartbeat, pulmonary vein ablation may be performed in individuals who have persistent symptoms of atrial fibrillation despite taking medication. In this procedure, a few catheters will be inserted into the large veins on both sides of the groin as well as the neck. These tubes will be advanced to the heart. Two of these catheters will be inserted into the left atrium. Cryoablation or radiofrequency energy will be used to create small scabs in the affected area and stop the arrhythmia.
The surgery performed to treat a ureteropelvic junction obstruction is called pyeloplasty. First, the patient will be put under general anaesthesia. In laparoscopic pyeloplasty, the surgeon makes three small incisions in the abdomen and inserts small instruments as well as a laparoscope through these incisions. With these instruments, the surgeon repairs the narrowing or the blockage in the ureter. For kidney drainage and bridging the pyeloplasty repair, the surgeon will leave a ureteral stent inside the ureter after pyeloplasty. In babies and infants, the surgeon will make a cut below the baby’s ribs and remove the obstructed segment of the ureter. The remaining normal ureter will be reattached to the baby’s renal pelvis.
Normally, the ureter is responsible for carrying urine from the pelvis to the bladder. In a condition called ureteropelvic junction obstruction, there is a blockage at the meeting point of the ureter and the pelvis. Due to this, urine isn’t able to pass into the ureter from the kidney. This results in a buildup of pressure inside the kidney and renal pelvis. Robotic dismembered pyeloplasty is a laparoscopic procedure wherein multiple small incisions will be made and robotic instruments will be inserted. Through these instruments, the surgeon will dissect, cauterise, cut and suture to perform the surgery. Lastly, the surgeon will rejoin the ends of the renal pelvis and the ureter.
When the support of the pelvic floor weakens, a condition called pelvic organ prolapse occurs. To treat this condition, a surgical procedure known as sacrocolpopexy is performed. Pelvic organ prolapse can include uterine prolapse, vagina vault prolapse, cystocele, rectocele or enterocele. In the sacrocolpopexy surgery, the surgeon will make 4 or 5 incisions on the abdomen and inflate it with carbon dioxide to expand the area. Then, a laparoscope will be inserted through one of the incisions. To push the cervix or top of the vagina back into position, a surgical mesh piece will be attached to the front and back vaginal walls as well as the sacrum.
Sclerotherapy is a treatment performed to treat spider and varicose veins. In this method, the patient lays down on the table with their legs elevated slightly. The affected area will be cleansed with alcohol. Then, the doctor will insert a solution into the vein using a needle. This solution will irritate the vein’s lining and it will swell and shut. This way the blood flow will get blocked. This vein becomes scar tissue and disappears. If a larger vein is to be treated, the solution used may be of foam version. The doctor will apply compression and massage the area to spread the solution and keep blood out of the vessel, after removing the needle.
Scrotoplasty is a surgery performed to either repair the scrotum or create a new one, in infants. It is generally performed in children who are born with penoscrotal tethering or webbing wherein the scrotum is attached to the penis by a stretch of skin that is longer than usual. In scrotoplasty surgery, the patient will be given a local anaesthetic to numb the area near the scrotum. Then, an incision will be made on the penis base and the skin on the scrotum will be cut off from the penis and the excess tissue will be removed. The scrotum will be reshaped using skin grafts if reinforcement is needed. The incision is closed after this.
A single port radical prostatectomy is a surgical procedure wherein the entire prostate gland is removed through one incision made in the abdomen. It is generally performed when a person has localized prostate cancer. The patient is administered general anaesthesia before starting the surgery. Then, the surgeon will use a robotic approach to perform the surgery. They will make an incision in the abdomen near the belly button, and remove the prostate gland. A single-port radical prostatectomy has several benefits over the traditional approach, such as quicker recovery, fewer complications and pain after surgery and better cosmetic outcome. With this approach, there is minimal to no scarring and patients experience less discomfort and recover faster.
Stapled hemorrhoidectomy is a surgical method used to treat haemorrhoids. It is usually preferred for third-degree haemorrhoids. In this procedure, a circular tube is inserted into the anal canal and a suture is braided within it, circumferentially. The suture ends are then brought out of the anus via the hollow tube. After this, the stapler is inserted through the tube and the suture ends are pushed together. When the suture is pulled, the enlarged hemorrhoidal supporting tissue gets drawn into the stapler’s jaws. Then, the hemorrhoidal cushions are repositioned to their original position within the anal canal and the stapler is discharged.
A subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) is an electronic device that continuously monitors the rhythm of your heart. It sends energy to the heart muscle when it recognises a very fast, irregular cardiac beat. This causes the heart to resume its usual rhythm. An S-ICD is usually required when a person has had or is at high risk of ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. These conditions cause the heart to beat extremely fast and if not treated immediately, can be fatal. The ICD monitors the cardiac rhythm, detects abnormally fast heart cycles, and delivers a high-energy shock to the heart to restore a normal heartbeat.
When there is an abnormal bulge in a wall of the aorta that has become weak, it is called a thoracic aortic aneurysm. To treat this aneurysm, thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery may be required if the symptoms are severe and the aneurysm is growing at a rate of 1 cm per year. Depending on the location of the aneurysm and the patient’s condition, either open-chest or endovascular surgery may be performed. In an open-chest surgery, the damaged segment of the aorta is removed and replaced with a graft, that is sewn into place. In endovascular surgery, a synthetic graft is implanted at the aneurysm’s location and held in place with little pins or hooks.
Total body irradiation is an uncommon type of radiation therapy wherein the entire body is treated with radiation. It is generally used to prepare the body for bone marrow or stem cell transplant. In this method, extremely low doses are administered several times a day for three to five days. TBI can eliminate cancerous cells, but its main objective is to suppress the immune system of the patient so that the chances of a successful transplant may increase and the risk of rejection decreases. TBI can be used to treat a wide range of conditions such as Hodgkin disease, neuroblastoma as well as preparing for a bone marrow transplant.
An opening into the trachea made through the neck is called a tracheostomy. This helps improve breathing by opening the airway. Once the patient is discharged, their doctor will give them instructions about what to do and which supplies will be necessary for tracheostomy care. First, suction the trach tube. Then, remove the inner cannula, if any. Clean it using hydrogen peroxide and a brush or pipe cleaner. Then, rinse it with tap or saline water and dry it completely using the mesh gauze pad. Insert it again. Then, dispose of the gauze dressing around the neck. Clean the skin around the stoma. Wipe off the solution and change the trach tube ties.
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is performed to remove early-stage rectal tumours or large polyps that may be found in the rectum. Before the surgery, the patient’s bowel will be prepared. After this, they will be placed under general anaesthesia and the surgeon will insert a proctoscope into the rectum and anus of the patient, over the lesion that is to be removed. This is a tube that has a camera as well as two TEMS microsurgical instruments. Gas will be inserted into the rectum to expand the area so that the surgeon has more room to work. Then, the surgeon will grab the lesion and cut it out, using special instruments.
Also known as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), the transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedure is performed to remove and replace an aortic valve that doesn’t open properly and has become too narrow. In the TAVR procedure, the doctor inserts a catheter either through an incision in the chest or a blood vessel in the leg. The valve is removed and replaced with a new one. After positioning it, the balloon on the tip of the catheter inflates so that the new valve can be expanded into its appropriate position. After this, the catheter is removed. The replacement valve is made from the tissue of a pig or cow’s heart.
Meniere’s syndrome occurs when there is an imbalance of fluid in the inner ear. Symptoms of this are tinnitus, vertigo, sensitivity to loud sounds, and pressure in the ears. When there is a severe attack, the person may experience vomiting and nausea and the risk of falling can increase. It can be treated by injecting steroids in the ear. In this procedure, the patients head is turned such that their affected ear is facing up. The doctor uses a specialized microscope to perform the procedure. The eardrum is numbed and a needle is inserted into the middle ear through the eardrum. This needle has a tiny amount of a steroid that fills the middle ear.
Lobectomy is a surgery commonly performed to treat lung cancer. In this surgery, a big section of the lung is surgically removed. One approach to lobectomy is the video-assisted lobectomy procedure. In this procedure, the surgeon makes one incision that is 3 to 4 inches long and three incisions that measure 1 inch, in the chest, to access the chest cavity without spreading the ribs. Then, through these incisions, the surgeon inserts surgical instruments and a thorascope. By viewing the images being transmitted from the thorascope, the surgeon removes the affected tissue or the tumour. If the tumour is early-stage cancer, the surgeon will also remove the lymph nodes from the chest’s mid-area.
A vena cava filter is a special device that is placed into the vena cava (main vein) so that blood clots in the leg veins can be prevented from moving to the lung, as this could result in a potentially fatal pulmonary embolism. These are typically used in patients who have a blood clot but cannot take anticoagulant medications or patients in which blood clots continue to develop, despite taking anticoagulants. These filters are inserted into the vena cava via a catheter that is inserted into a large vein in either the neck or the groin, and then into the vena cava. This will catch the clots while moving through the body towards the lungs.
Vesicostomy is a surgical procedure that involves making a small incision in the lower abdomen so that urine can be drained from a child's bladder. This is typically done when an infant or child is not able to empty their bladder, due to several conditions such as spina bifida or spinal cord injury. Due to this, pressure starts to build up and urine may reflux back to the kidneys, causing damage. Vesicostomy is performed to prevent that. It is a temporary procedure that can be reversed, once the underlying source of the condition is resolved. In this surgery, the surgeon cuts a small portion of the bladder and stitches it to the abdominal wall.
Skull base surgery is performed to remove a tumour or other growth at the base of the skull. It is done to remove tumours such as sinonasal tumours, craniopharyngiomas, or tumours in the pituitary gland. It may also be used to treat encephaloceles, certain birth defects and cysts. Skull base surgery is performed in a minimally invasive way through endoscopic skull base surgery. In this surgery, the patient is put to sleep after administering general anaesthesia. Then, the surgeon inserts an endoscope in the patient’s nose. This is a high-definition camera and light so that the surgeon can clearly view the area. Then, the tumour or other growth is removed using special tools.
Soft tissue sarcoma is a type of cancer beginning in tissues such as fat, nerves, joint lining, muscles, blood vessels and tendons. There are more than 50 types of soft tissue sarcomas. These most commonly occur in the abdomen, legs or arms. It occurs when there are mutations in the DNA of cells. Symptoms of soft tissue sarcoma include a swelling or lump that is noticeable and pain. Treatment for soft tissue sarcoma includes surgery wherein cancer and healthy tissue surrounding it are removed. If it has affected the legs and arms, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be recommended so that the tumour can be shrunk to prevent amputation.
Cancer of the lymphatic system is called lymphoma. There are various types of lymphoma but its main subtypes are Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Symptoms of lymphoma include fever, shortness of breath, itchy skin, swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, groin or armpits, unexplained weight loss, persistent fatigue and night sweats. There are several treatment options for lymphoma, including active surveillance, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow transplant, targeted drug therapy and others. It depends on the patient and the stage of disease, which treatment option may be performed. The goal is to eliminate the maximum number of cancer cells and to enter into the remission stage.
Treatments for joint disorders depend on their cause. If a joint disorder has occurred due to a sports injury, treatment includes the RICE method that involves rest, ice, compression and elevation, for faster healing, reduction of swelling and relieving pain. Other treatment options include taking pain medications, not moving the injured area, physical therapy and rehabilitation. If the joint disorder is arthritis, surgery to replace the joint may be required. Physical activity is also essential for the treatment and management of arthritis and other such conditions, otherwise, complications can arise with a sedentary lifestyle.